PHP-CRUD-API now supports authorization and validation

Another milestone is reached for the PHP-CRUD-API project. A project that aims to provide a high performance, consistent data API over REST that is easy to deploy (it is a single PHP file!) and requires minimal configuration. By popular demand we have added four important new features:

  1. Tables and the actions on them can be restricted with custom rules.
  2. Access to specific columns can be restricted using your own algorithm.
  3. You can specify “sanitizers” to, for example, strip HTML tags from input.
  4. You can specify “validators” functions to show errors on invalid input.

These features are built by allowing you to define callback functions in your configuration. These functions can then contain your application specific logic. How these function work and how you can load them is explained below.

Table authorizer

The following function can be used to authorize access to specific tables:

 * @param action    'create','read','update','delete','list'
 * @param database  name of your database (e.g. 'northwind')
 * @param table     name of the table (e.g. 'customers')
 * @returns bool    indicates that access is granted  
  return true; 

Column authorizer

The following function can be used to authorize access to specific columns:

 * @param action    'create','read','update','delete','list'
 * @param database  name of your database (e.g. 'northwind')
 * @param table     name of the table (e.g. 'customers')
 * @param column    name of the column (e.g. 'password')
 * @returns bool    indicates that access is granted  
  return true; 

Input sanitizer

The following function can be used to sanitize input for specific columns:

 * @param action    'create','read','update','delete','list'
 * @param database  name of your database (e.g. 'northwind')
 * @param table     name of the table (e.g. 'customers')
 * @param column    name of the column (e.g. 'username')
 * @param type      type of the column (depends on engine)
 * @param value     input from the user (e.g. 'johndoe88')
 * @returns string  sanitized value
  return $value; 

Input validator

The following function can be used to validate input for specific columns:

 * @param action    'create','read','update','delete','list'
 * @param database  name of your database (e.g. 'northwind')
 * @param table     name of the table (e.g. 'customers')
 * @param column    name of the column (e.g. 'username')
 * @param type      type of the column (depends on engine)
 * @param value     input from the user (e.g. 'johndoe88')
 * @param context   all input fields in this action
 * @returns string  validation error (if any) or null
  return null;


This is an example configuration that requires the above snippets to be defined.

$api = new MySQL_CRUD_API(array(

You can find the project on Github.

PHP script to tail a log file using telnet


Why would you need a PHP script to tail a log file using telnet? You don’t! But it the script is cool anyway. It allows you to connect to your web server over telnet, talk some HTTP to your web server, and run a PHP script that shows a tail of a log file. It uses ANSI sequences (colors!) to provide a nice user interface specifically to tail a log file with the “follow” option (like “tail -f”). Below you find the PHP script that you have to put on the web server:

// configuration
$file = '/var/log/apache2/access.log';
$ip = '127.';
// start of script
$title = "\033[H\033[2K$file";
if (strpos($_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'],$ip)!==0) die('Access Denied');
$stream = fopen($file, 'r');
if (!$stream) die("Could not open file: $file\n");
echo "\033[m\033[2J";
fseek($stream, 0, SEEK_END);
echo str_repeat("\n",4500)."\033[s$title";
  $data = stream_get_contents($stream);
  if ($data) {
    echo "\033[32m\033[u".$data."\033[s".str_repeat("\033[m",1500)."$title";

To tail (and follow) a remote file you need to talk HTTP to the web server using telnet and request to load the PHP tail script. First you connect using telnet:

$ telnet localhost 80
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.

After connecting you have to “speak” some HTTP (just type this):

GET /tail.php HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost

NB: Make sure you end the above telnet commands with an empty line! After this the screen should be empty showing any new log lines in real-time in green on the telnet window.

You can use Ctrl + ‘]’ to get to the telnet prompt and type “quit” to exit.

If you don’t want to copy the code above, then you can also find the latest version of tail.php on Github.

Creating a simple REST API in PHP

I’m the author of php-crud-api and I want to share the core of the application with you. It includes routing a JSON REST request, converting it into SQL, executing it and giving a meaningful response. I tried to write the application as short as possible and came up with these 65 lines of code:


// get the HTTP method, path and body of the request
$request = explode('/', trim($_SERVER['PATH_INFO'],'/'));
$input = json_decode(file_get_contents('php://input'),true);

// connect to the mysql database
$link = mysqli_connect('localhost', 'user', 'pass', 'dbname');

// retrieve the table and key from the path
$table = preg_replace('/[^a-z0-9_]+/i','',array_shift($request));
$key = array_shift($request)+0;

// escape the columns and values from the input object
$columns = preg_replace('/[^a-z0-9_]+/i','',array_keys($input));
$values = array_map(function ($value) use ($link) {
  if ($value===null) return null;
  return mysqli_real_escape_string($link,(string)$value);

// build the SET part of the SQL command
$set = '';
for ($i=0;$i<count($columns);$i++) {

// create SQL based on HTTP method
switch ($method) {
  case 'GET':
    $sql = "select * from `$table`".($key?" WHERE id=$key":''); break;
  case 'PUT':
    $sql = "update `$table` set $set where id=$key"; break;
  case 'POST':
    $sql = "insert into `$table` set $set"; break;
  case 'DELETE':
    $sql = "delete `$table` where id=$key"; break;

// excecute SQL statement
$result = mysqli_query($link,$sql);

// die if SQL statement failed
if (!$result) {

// print results, insert id or affected row count
if ($method == 'GET') {
  if (!$key) echo '[';
  for ($i=0;$i<mysqli_num_rows($result);$i++) {
    echo ($i>0?',':'').json_encode(mysqli_fetch_object($result));
  if (!$key) echo ']';
} elseif ($method == 'POST') {
  echo mysqli_insert_id($link);
} else {
  echo mysqli_affected_rows($link);

// close mysql connection

This code is written to show you how simple it is to make a fully operational REST API in PHP.


Save this file as “api.php” in your (Apache) document root and call it using:


Or you can use the PHP built-in webserver from the command line using:

$ php -S localhost:8888 api.php

The URL when ran in from the command line is:


NB: Don’t forget to adjust the ‘mysqli_connect’ parameters in the above script!

REST API in a single PHP file

Although the above code is not perfect it actually does do 3 important things:

  1. Support HTTP verbs GET, POST, UPDATE and DELETE
  2. Escape all data properly to avoid SQL injection
  3. Handle null values correctly

One could thus say that the REST API is fully functional. You may run into missing features of the code, such as:

  1. No related data (automatic joins) supported
  2. No condensed JSON output supported
  3. No support for PostgreSQL or SQL Server
  4. No POST parameter support
  5. No JSONP/CORS cross domain support
  6. No base64 binary column support
  7. No permission system
  8. No search/filter support
  9. No pagination or sorting supported
  10. No column selection supported

Don’t worry, all these features are available in php-crud-api, which you can get from Github. On the other hand, now that you have the essence of the application, you may also write your own!

PHP-CRUD-API now supports PostgreSQL 9

For the pasts months I have been building PHP-CRUD-API (formerly MySQL-CRUD-API). It is a single PHP file that provides an instant powerful and consistent REST API for a MySQL, PostgreSQL or MS SQL Server database. The application uses reflection to “detect” the table structure and then provide an API in only a few hundred lines of PHP code. It is quite comparable to the REST functionality of the experimental HTTP plugin in MySQL 5.7.

Production performance < 10 ms

I recently finished the test suites and started using it in production. I’ve added some simple .htaccess based firewalling to ensure that only trusted applications can talk to it. Most REST API calls are handled well under 10 ms, so the performance impact on the consuming web application is acceptable. It manages to keep page loads under 100 ms even when doing several REST API calls.

PostgreSQL support and more

Recently PostgreSQL was added as a supported database. With the addition of this third database backend I also changed the name from MySQL-CRUD-API to PHP-CRUD-API. Other features that were recently added are support for “CORS pre-flight requests” (mainly for AngularJS) and “JSON batch insert”. Feature requests are very welcome on the php-crud-api Github page.

Contributions / Future

If you feel like contributing, then maybe these topics inspire you:

  1. Set up Travis automated tests
  2. Add an API documentation generator
  3. Create a plugin system for authentication, authorization and accounting
  4. Port to NodeJS, Java or C#

If you like the project, please give it a star on Github!

Static code analysis for PHP templates

Templating is cool. Everybody is using Twig today. Other popular choices are: Smarty, Mustache and Latte. You may also want to read what Fabien Potencier has written about PHP templates languages. It makes sense.

Still I can think of two reasons why we don’t want a templating language and we rather use PHP itself for templating. First reason: PHP templating is easier to learn than a PHP templating language.  Second reason: it executes faster.

PHP templating languages improve security

I tried to understand what the primary reason is that people are using a templating language. It seems to be ease of use, while keeping the application secure. The following example shows how easily you can write unsafe code:

Hello <?php echo $POST['name']; ?>!

It would only be safe to print a POST variable when using:

<?php echo htmlspecialchars($POST['name'],ENT_QUOTES,'UTF-8'); ?>

A templating language typically allows you to write something like:

Hello {{ name }}!

I agree that security is improved by using a templating language. The templating language escapes the output strings in order to prevent XSS vulnerabilities. But still I wonder: Can’t we get the same security benefits when we use native PHP for templating?

Helper function

As you have seen the PHP way of escaping is rather long. Fortunately, you can easily define a function that allows an alternative syntax, for instance:

Hello <?php e($POST['name']); ?>!

Yup, that is the “e” for “echo” :-). Now we can report all native (unescaped) echo function calls as being potentially unsafe. This can be achieved by doing static code analysis. While analyzing the code the analyzer could complain like this:

PHP Warning:  In "template.php" you should not use "echo" on line 1. Error raised  in analyzer.php on line 11

This could be limited to debug mode as static code analysis actually takes some time and may harm the performance of your application.

Static code analysis in PHP

I worked out the idea of secure PHP templating using static code analysis. In development (debug) mode it should warn the programmer when he uses a potentially non-safe construct.

The following analyzer script shows how this works:

$tokens    = array('T_ECHO', 'T_PRINT', 'T_EXIT', 'T_STRING', 'T_EVAL', 'T_OPEN_TAG_WITH_ECHO');
$functions = array('echo', 'print', 'die', 'exit', 'var_dump', 'eval', '<?=');
$filename  = 'template.php';

$all_tokens = token_get_all(file_get_contents($filename));
foreach ($all_tokens as $token) {
  if (is_array($token)) {
    if (in_array(token_name($token[0]),$tokens)) {
      if (in_array($token[1],$functions)) {
        trigger_error('In "'.$filename.'" you should not use "'.htmlentities($token[1]).'" on line '.$token[2].'. Error raised ', E_USER_WARNING);

It will analyze the “template.php” file and report potentially insecure or erroneous language constructs.

This form of templating and static code analysis is fully implemented in the MindaPHP framework that you can find on my Github account. You can find the source code of the PHP static code analyzer class here.